Flamenco En Beirut
Glossary of Flamenco: From M to Z  
M
malagueña
Guitar playing fixed to the structure of the natural “fandango” in all the senses (rhythmic, tonal, and harmonic) but that closes the “llamada” by the running the thumb past the fourth, third, second and first string.

martilleo
Technique of the right hand similar to that of the “picado” but in which the fingers participating in the fingering, flex so that they can combine the melody of the sharps with the corchet of the thumb. Also called technique of “pellizcado” or “pizzicato”.

masculino
In flamenco slang, sound emited by the last three strings, also known as “graves” or “negras”.

medio
Type of guitar playing that is executed with basic rhythm of A major/B flat. Usually the “seguiriya”, “bulería” and “tango”, although on occasions is also used for the “soleá” and the “fandangos”.

melisma
Group of musical notes sucessively sung on the same silable, a method of adorning or embelishing the voice.

melodía
Part of the music that deals with tempo in relation to the tones, and the choice and number of “sones” with which each musical period in a genre of musical composition, has to be formed by, on one given tone, modulated so that the music is agreeable.

milonga
Guitar playing associated with the “cante de ida y vuelta”, with a “tango” rhythm, realised in minor tones.

minera
Guitar playing similar to the “tarante” that Ramón Montoya realised in G sharp mayor/A mayor, due to the demands of the song. Currently, when guitarists plays “por levante” the label of Montoya is used, since the “taranta” and the “minera” differ in an exercise of transport, the same as that of the “fandango “por arriba” or “por medio” .

modal
The tonal structure that concords with the so called “llamada cadence flamenco”, structured on A, G, F, E and similar chords.

modulación
Change in the tonality of a piece.

molina
One of the fathers of the flamenco guitar. Luis Molina forms part of the first generation of players and is the creator of the style which carries his name.

montoya
The first great school of flamenco guitar. Ramón Montoya is considered the great genius of the start of this guitar genre and his “falsetas” and styles he created for the guitar are still played frequently. Amongst other styles he invented the “minera” the “farruca”, the “rondeña” and the “alborada”.

mosaico
Design that surrounds the mouth of the harmonic lid and through which the identity of the maker can be known.

muescas
Each of the grooves in the bone through which the strings pass in the direction of the bridge after coming out of the peg box, aswell as those that the bone of the bridge has itself.

mástil
Handle of the guitar that comes away from the soundbox and includes the fretted fingerboard and the peg box
O
octava
Diatonic series that includes the seven sounds that constitute a scale and the repetition of the first of them. II sound that forms the most simple and perfect harmony with another.

ópera flamenca
Flamenco show of songs, dance and guitar, that proliferated from 1920 to 1936 throughout Spain, organised by profesionales, and generaly celebrated in bullrings or big theatres.

órdenes
Each of the guitar strings. Previously the hard were of five orders until they passed on to include more. The first “tratado” of guitar, of six orders was written by Juan Antonio de Vargas y Guzmán from Cádiz.
P
palmas
Accompaniment for song and dance, measured to each style, which is realised by striking the fingers of one hand on the palm of the other or making both palms sound. Other styles are the “redoblás” employed in “bulerías”, which form a counterpoint to those who “llevan el son”, or “simples”, and the “palmas sordas” in which the hands are cupped so as not to drown out the voice of the singer or the soft tremolos of the guitar.

palo
Each of the musical structures that exist in flamenco. In some of them, in the song, they are only differentiated by the theme. In guitar playing this doesn’t occur.

palosanto
Type of wood used by guitar makers for different parts of the guitar. It is one of the most prized materials for the elaboration of guitars.

paquero
The name given to the “jerga flamenco” and those guitarists who follow the school of music created by Paco de Lucía.

patiño
The maestro Patiño created the first school of guitar playing to which fundamental guitar players such as Paco el Barbero, Antonio Pérez el Pollo, Juan Gandulla Habichuela or Paco el de Lucena belong. He was the first in giving guitar concerts.

payo Villager, country person, rude. Proceeding from the word “payes” used in the east and in cataluña. Gypsies began to use it to, contemptuously name those of thier race and the term has generalised to denominate those who are not gypsies.

pellizco
Stir of emotion produced by specific songs or dances in the animo of who listen or present.

petenera
Guitar playing that moves away from the rest of the cultural heritage of flamenco, in its characteristic rhythms, since although it supports itself on the “tango”, it has stops which characterise it. Tonaly it is one more that explains the “llamada cadencia flamenco”.

peñas flamencas
Entities constituted in the form of asociations, by enthusiasts of the art of flamenco, for the exaltation and difusion of flamenco song, dance and guitar playing. They were on the increase from the seventies in Andalucía, extending throughout Spain and various other countries. In these premises the art of flamenco is a continuing matter in the reunions, and recitals, performed by consecrated artists or new promises.

picado
Technique of the right hand consisting of, fingering of the strings with the index and ring finger successively. If it is pressed twice in a row with the same finger a defect is produced in the execution known as “arrastre”.

pizzicato
Technique of the “pellizcado” is also known in flamenco as “martilleo”.

postura
Name that in the “jerga flamenca” guitarists give to the chords.

puente
Part of the soundbox where the strings end, held to it through a simple and long knot that prevents the string supporting all the tension at one same point. The nearer the bridge is to the harmonic lid, the softer the guitar will be. It is not convenient to play next to this piece since the sound produced here is very metallic.

pulgar
Technique that, as its name indicates, is realised thumbing with the right hand thumb. From this comes the “alzapua”. At first, this technique was viewed badly by guitarists and its created. Paco el de Lucena, had serious problems in maintaining it, but he was able to pass the technique on to Niño de Morón who in turn passed it on to Pepe Naranjo. In recent times the major representative of this style have been Diego del Gastor, student of the cited Naranjo and the definitive consolidator of what is known as the “toque de Morón”.

pulsación
Coordination of the fingers on the left hand at the hour of pressing a musical note on the fingerboard, meaning, the playing consists in knowing which finger has to press each fret at a determined moment. Differing from fingering in so far as the coordination of the fingers of the right hand.

puntear
Name which denominates the technique of “picado”.

puntillos
Point which is situated behind a musical note (black, half note, corchea..) to indicate that this should last half more than its intrinsic value. For example, if we put a point on a redonda it doesn’t have the value of four crotchet but six.
Q
quebrado
Type of composed rhythm fixed to two simple beats. The "seguiriya" uses this faltering rythm alternating three/four and two/four.
R
rajo
Quality of the voice and expressive intensity of the singer, that depend on their capacity of “jondura” and “duende”.

rasgueo o rasgueado
Percusions on various strings at the same time, given with the fingers of the right hand in different combinations.

rasquear
Technique of the right hand consisting in spreading all of the fingers one after the other on the strings. There are lots of types of strumming amongst which the following stand out, the “redondo” realised with the thumb as well, or the “volátil”, that doesn’t require the spreading of all the fingers but the contact of whole hand, moving up and down.

resonancia
Quality of a guitar that shows strength in the sound that this is capable of emiting.

ricardero
How guitarists, who faithfully follow the school of Niño Ricardo, are known.

ritmo
Proportion maintained between the time of a movement and another different one. It is what differs for example the “soleá” and the “soleá por bulerías”.

romance
Song. Called also “corrido” or “corrida”, it originated in a special intonation of the popular andaluz romances. It is performed without accompaniment, for which reason it is quite possible that it may be the most primitive style of flamenco and from which stem the “tonás”. There is a variant that was spread by Antonio de “Mairena” to the rhythm of “soleá por bulerías”.

rondeña
Guitar playing of the group denominated the abandolaos executed on a rhythm of subdivision ternary with modal tonality. Its creator Ramón Montoya, used a basic rhythm on D major with the sixth in D.

rosa
Guitar playing of the group of “alegrías” with E major / B major as basic rhythm of the tune. Paco el de Lucena was its creator.

rumba
Guitar playing adjusted to the rythm of the “tango” although it can separate from the “llamada cadencia flamenca” in its tonality. Its rhythmic structure has an endless amount of variants.
S
sorda
Method of playing the guitar in which there is an absence of tonality but not of rythm. Normally achieved by putting the open left hand on the fingerboard without executing pressure.
T
tablao
Stage dedicated to the art of flamenco and also the premises that is specialised in offering shows of the art of flamenco, inspired in old “cafes cantantes”. They become important in the fifties, stimulated by the increase of tourism.

tambores
Cilinders of the peg box on which the strings are wrapped to get the right tension.

tango
Guitar playing with a rythn based on three/four with flamenco cadence in general, except the “Triana” style (minor tones) and the “Málaga” style (major tones).

tanguillo
Guitar playing fixed to the same premise as the “tango” but with a notably accelerated rhythm.

tapa armónica
Frontal wooden part of the soundbox in which can be found the mouth and the bridge. Has to be a made of a material with a high level of vibrations so that the sound can be emitted with the most clarity possible.

taranta
Guitar playing exent of rythm that follows the structure of the “fandango”. With only a tonal diffence, since it is realised on F sharp and G major, although it is only a basic transport excercise in the field of harmony. The “cartagenera”, “levantica” and “murciana” are executed in the same structure.

taranto
Similar guitar playing as to that of the “taranta” but subject to the ternary rythm of the “fandango”.

templar
In the “jerga flamenca” is a synonym of tuning, or focus before beginning a song.

tensar
Action of stretching the strings to aquire the mould that they need and don’t go out of tune too much.

tercio
In the flamenco, it is said that the verses compose a “copla”.

ternario
Subdivision of the rhythm for which the musical units are grouped in three in three as in the case of six/eight.

tiento
Guitar playing of the “tango” family, as with the “tanguillo” it differs from this in rhythm, although now for being notably slower. It has the same structure played in the “mariana”.

tiorba
Name of the first writers of flamenco, such as Fernando el de Triana or Galerín, gave to the guitar for being similar instruments.

tocaor
Word which is used in flamenco to designate a performer. It differs to the guitarist in that they perform and compose.

tocar apoyando
Pressing a string, leaving the finger to rest on the adjacent string.

tocar sin apoyar
After touching a string the finger ends its journey in the air “recorrido en el aire”.

tono
Each of the sounds pertaining to a scale. Intesity, grade of elevation of a sound.

toque
Action or efect of playing the flamenco guitar.

transportar
A fragment of a musical piece whose tonality changes to another without varying the intervales.

transpositor
Instrument constructed so that it emits a sound different from the written musical. The guitar is a transpositor instrument.
V
verdiales
Guitar playing from the group of “abandolaos” with a traditional character, a ternary rhythm and flamenco cadence but without the melodic devices and based on strumming. veta
Strip which can be distinguished from the rest of the woold due to its quality, colour... It is a vein that makes the guitar not look smooth. When there are a lot it is said that the guitar is “vetada”.

vibrar
Make the string move with a quiver. With this effect the instrument emits a sound and that lasts in the tempo.

vibrato
Light undulation of the sound in the guitar, achieved with the movement of a finger pressing against the fret chosen to vibrate, in such a way that the tone alters without abandoning its essence.

viciada
Name to the guitars whose harmonic lid has curved and whose cords separate from them more than they should. This is due to the humidity.

voz afillá
Denomination that is applied to all husky, deep and rough voices, in relation to El Fillo, who acording to the verbal tradition, runited these characteristics.
Z
zambra
Moorish dance, also called “zambra granadina” as it was mostly played in the caves of Sacromonte, in Granada.

zapateado
Dance. Consists of a sober flamenco dance, that arose in the middle of the XIX century. It is a rhythmic combination of sounds that are made with the toe, the heal of the foot and is performed by men or sometimes by women in masculine attire, trousers and short jacket. The “zapateado” flamenco is interspersed in the majority of styles, by women or by men, sometimes the guitar is silent and rejoins the rest of the accompanying elements at the moment of most intensity or the climax.
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